|1. Multi-Wavelength/Multi-Viewpoint Coronal Observations from SDO, Hinode, STEREO and SOHO
Richard Frazin, Enrico Landi - University of Michigan
Current instrumentation for observing the solar corona provides unprecedented resolution in time, space, temperature and wavelength, all from simultaneous multiple viewpoints. For the first time, detailed quantitative data-driven modeling of both global steady coronal properties and rapid catastrophic events such as CMEs and flares is possible. This session is designed to give investigators the chance to present the latest techniques for utilizing these observations for both plasma diagnostics and model development and validation, to ultimately constraining the coronal heating and acceleration physics.
|2. Advances in Understanding the Solar Wind through Spectroscopic Observations
D. W. Savin (Columbia University)
Spectroscopy holds the greatest diagnostic power to measure the physical properties and dynamic status of solar plasmas. Furthermore, line intensities and line profiles uniquely hold the key to measure ion temperatures and non-thermal velocities, that can have direct signatures of solar wind heating and acceleration. We now have 16 years worth of spectroscopic observations with SOHO and Hinode spectrometers. These data can be coupled with narrow-band imagers from SOHO, TRACE, Hinode, STEREO and SDO. Together all the data provide us with a unique opportunity to detect, quantify and model the fast and slow solar wind heating and acceleration. This session explores recent advances in solar wind science brought by high-resolution spectroscopic studies of the solar wind. This session will be preceeded by a plenary talk reviewing the current state of our theoretical understanding, laying out the unresolved theoretical issues, while also emphasizing potential spectroscopic observations which can be used to constrain and guide theory, with an eye towards potential limits of the observational constraints due to various competing physical processes and/or instrumental issues. The session itself will consist of a 2.5-hour segment focusing on fast solar wind observations and a 2.5-hour segment on slow solar wind observations. Each segment will be introduced by two speakers with 25 minutes each. The aim is to involve everyone from students to senior researchers in the discussion. To this end, the longer than usual talk length allows each speaker to give sufficient background to introduce their topic to non-experts, to go into detail about the scientific results and implications, and to lay out the unresolved issues with the results and/or the implications. Each pair of talks will then be followed by 100 minutes of discussion. Participants wishing to bring present issues or report results relevant to the session are encouraged to bring 1-2 slides for presentation during the discussion.
Understanding the Origins of the Solar Wind
S. R. Cranmer (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)
The last decade has seen significant progress toward identifying and characterizing the processes that heat the corona and accelerate the solar wind. Much of this progress has come about because new measurements are diminishing the traditional gap between solar physics (i.e., near-Sun astronomy) and interplanetary space physics. These two communities are becoming increasingly aware of the value of each other's data and theoretical insights. This presentation will give an overview of some of the ways that connections between the Sun and the heliosphere are leading to new answers to old questions. First, I will summarize the state of ongoing debate between competing theoretical camps that advocate either waves/turbulence or magnetic reconnection as the primary drivers of coronal heating in open flux tubes. In some areas, traditional observational diagnostics of MHD plasma properties may not be sufficient to distinguish between these competing paradigms. Thus, this presentation will also describe why it is wise to confront the truly microscopic (nonlinear, non-Maxwellian, collisionless) nature of the relevant particles and fields. Theories and measurements that "zoom in" to this level of kinetic detail have the greatest potential for improving our understanding of the origins of solar wind acceleration. This is the natural realm of coronagraphic spectroscopy, so if I have time I may also emphasize the need for stringent stray light controls in instruments that observe above the solar limb.
SEGMENT 1A SPEAKER
Evidence for Alfven Wave Damping at Low Heights in a Polar Coronal Hole
M. Hahn (Columbia Univeristy)
The high temperatures observed in the solar corona at heights below ~ 2 Rsun are due to a transfer of energy from fluid motions in and below the photosphere into coronal heating. The mechanism responsible for this transfer, though, remains unknown. Alfven waves represent one possibility, but most theoretical models predict that such waves cannot dissipate their energy into heat below ~ 2 Rsun. By studying spectral line widths, which are proportional to the wave amplitude, we find unambiguous evidence that Alfven waves start to be damped at about 1.2 Rsun. We derive an upper limit for the energy they deposit between 1.1 Rsun and 1.3 Rsun and find that it is enough to account for up to about 70% of that required to heat the corona and accelerate the solar wind.
SEGMENT 1B SPEAKER
Solar wind diagnostic using both in-situ and spectroscopic measurements
E. Landi (University of Michigan)
We developed a new diagnostic technique that simultaneously utilizes two completely different types of observations - in-situ determinations of solar wind charge states, and high-resolution spectroscopy of the inner solar corona - to determine the temperature, density and velocity of the solar wind as a function of height in the inner corona, below the plasma freeze-in point. This technique relies on the ability to calculate the evolution of the ion charge composition as the solar wind escapes the Sun given wind temperature, density and velocity profiles as a function of distance. The resulting charge composition can be used to predict frozen-in charge states as well as spectral line intensities, to be compared with in-situ and remote sensing observations. Such a comparison can be used in two ways. If the input profiles are predicted by a theoretical solar wind model, this technique allows benchmarking of the model. Otherwise, an empirical determination of the velocity, temperature and density profile can be achieved below the plasma freeze-in point applying a trial-and-error procedure to initial, user-specified profiles. To demonstrate this methodology, we have applied this technique to a state-of-the-art coronal hole and equatorial streamer model. We also show that line intensity profiles depart from those obtained using the common ionization equilibrium assumption.
SEGMENT 2A SPEAKER
UV Spectroscopic Observations of Streamers and the Slow Solar Wind
L. Strachan (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)
UV spectroscopy of the extended corona has revealed a wealth of information about coronal heating and the slow solar wind acceleration in the extended corona. Several source regions have been identified for the origins of the slow solar wind, including coronal streamers. We will discuss how UVCS/SOHO diagnostics of ion temperatures, flow speeds, and abundances can be used to identify from where in the streamer the slow solar wind originates. Most analyses of the UVCS data suggest that the solar wind flow occurs at the streamer/coronal hole boundary but this interface is poorly understood. We will summarize what is known from the UVCS streamer observations and what new models and observations are needed to obtain a better understanding of the slow wind source regions.
SEGMENT 2B SPEAKER
Two components of the coronal emission revealed by both spectroscopic and imaging observations
H. Tian (High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research)
Boundaries of active regions have been suggested to be possible sources of the slow solar wind. X-ray and EUV imaging observations often reveal high-speed (~100 km/s) quasi-periodic propagating disturbances (PDs) along the fan-like structures at edges of active regions. Meanwhile, EUV spectroscopic observations of active region boundaries usually reveal a blue shift of the order of 20 km/s and no periodicity for these blue shifts. We think that the key to solve these discrepancies is the asymmetry of the emission line profile. The ubiquitous presence of blueward asymmetries of EUV emission line profiles suggests at least two emission components: a primary component accounting for the background coronal emission and a weak secondary component associated with high-speed (~100 km/s) upflows. Through jointed imaging and spectroscopic observations, we have demonstrated that the PDs are responsible for the secondary component of line profiles and suggested that they may be an efficient means to provide heated mass into the corona and solar wind. The intermittent nature of these high-speed outflows (fine-scale jets) suggests that the mass supply to the corona and solar wind is episodic rather than continuous. Similar spectroscopic signatures have also been found in CME-induced dimming regions, suggesting possible solar wind streams from dimming regions. Unresolved problems include the production mechanism of these high-speed outflows and the connection between these outflows to the interplanetary space. ***********************************************************************
3. Observation Tests That Differentiate Between the Various Solar Wind Models
Over the past several years solar wind composition and elemental abundance data seems to be shifting our understanding of the solar wind from the classic bimodal “fast wind - slow wind” paradigm to a “structured wind - unstructured wind” paradigm. Simultaneously, enormous theoretical developments in solar wind generation models have been made (e.g., quasi-steady Separatrix-Web). This proposed session will facilitate a discussion focused on the abilities of various in-situ and remote sensing data to test and differentiate the various theoretical frameworks. In particular, the “scene-setters” will facilitate discussion around the following topics:
- Where theoretical models currently stand, similarities and differences, in order to draw out testable predictions.
- Individual, and combinations of, measurements that may test and differentiate between the various models.
- Suggest new measurement ideas necessary for future development.
Possible “scene-setter”, discussion facilitators: Spiro Antiochos, Thomas Zurbuchen, Steve Cranmer, Len Fisk.
|4. Interaction of CMEs with Coronal and Heliospheric Structures
Ying Liu, Noe Lugaz, and Christian Moestl
It is frequently observed that CMEs interact with coronal and heliospheric structures (e.g., coronal holes, helmet streamers, CIRs and other CMEs) throughout their propagation from the Sun to interplanetary space. These interactions are of importance for both space weather and basic plasma physics. First, the interactions can deflect CMEs and enhance southward magnetic fields, which has important implications for geomagnetic storm generation. Second, the interactions imply significant energy and momentum transfer between the interacting systems where magnetic reconnection may take place. Third, they may reveal interesting shock physics in case a shock is involved, including modifications in the shock strength, particle acceleration, and transport.
The current fleet of spacecraft (including STEREO, SDO, SOHO, Wind and ACE) from multiple vantage points enables us to make detailed studies of the interaction process. In particular, connections between remote-sensing observations and in situ measurements can be established with the wide-angle heliospheric imaging capability of STEREO. The aim of this session is to improve our understanding of the interactions by bringing together remote-sensing observations, in situ measurements (including energetic particles), and theoretical modeling. Key discussion topics will include: CME interaction with coronal holes and streamers; CME interaction with solar wind stream structures (including CIRs), and CME-CME interactions.
|5. Dynamics of the Heliosheath and Signatures of the Heliopause - Expectations and Observations
Merav Opher, Jim Drake, Matt Hill and Nathan Schwadron
This session aims to discuss the recent Voyager measurements in the heliosheath and the new results from IBEX. The aim is to discuss the dynamic of the heliosheath and possible signatures of the crossing of the last boundary of the heliosphere, the heliopause. Measurement of flows and particles on Voyager indicate that Voyager 1 may be very close to the heliopause, and Voyager 2 observations are intriguing as well. Models predict this crossing will occur in the next 1-3 years. Energetic particles from the suprathermal range up to galactic cosmic rays are exhibiting extraordinary variations that are difficult to reconcile with existing models. The measurements of the magnetic field and plasma in the heliosheath indicate that the spatial and temporal dynamic of the heliosheath is much more complex than previously thought. IBEX measurements of the extended tail see effects of the interstellar magnetic field distorting the heliosphere. This session will bring theoreticians, modelers and observers together to discuss the dynamics of the heliosheath and which signatures we expect as we approach and cross the heliopause.
|6. Fast reconnection in large, high-Lundquist number coronal plasmas mediated by plasmoids: Implications for reconnecting current sheets and supra-arcade downflows
A. Bhattacharjee/T. Forbes
Recent work has demonstrated that reconnection in large, high-Lundquist-number systems, in resistive as well as Hall MHD and fully kinetic regimes , shows dynamical behavior qualitatively different from systems of moderate or small size. By large systems, we mean systems in which the aspect ratio of thin current sheets in the reconnection layer exceeds about 30 or so. Such systems are easily realized in the corona, where the typical Sweet-Parker width is expected to be much smaller compared with the system size. A universal feature of these systems, seen in high-resolution simulations and confirmed by analytical theory, is the spontaneous development of super-Alfvenic secondary instabilities that can lead to new regimes of fast reconnection. The electric fields in such regimes are super-Dreicer. The reconnection in such systems is strongly impulsive and time-dependent. These new results have potentially important consequences for models of eruptive coronal dynamics as well as coronal heating.
In this session, we propose to address the following questions:
- How does the reconnection rate scale with the Lundquist number, electron and ion inertial lengths, plasma beta and system size?
- What is the observed distribution (Log normal? Power law?) of plasmoids in reconnecting current sheets and supra-arcade downflows? How do the predictions of theory compare with observations?
- What are the three-dimensional structures produced by the plasmoid instability? Are they flux ropes? Is the system turbulent? What role do these structures play in accelerating particles?
|7. The compressible nature of solar wind turbulence in the inertial range and dissipation range: What, How, and Why?
John Podesta and Joe Borovsky
There are different theories to explain why compressible fluctuations in the solar wind behave the way they do, but our understanding of the nature of compressible fluctuations remains a matter of debate. The purpose of this session is to discuss the current state of understanding from the points of view of both theory and observations, taking care to differentiate changes in the physics between the inertial range and the dissipation range. We shall also follow up on last year's session and discuss the observational evidence that the dominant fluctuations at proton kinetic scales are KAWs. The session shall address the following questions:
Are inertial range compressible solar wind fluctuations a mixture of pressure balanced structures (PBS) and perpendicular propagating fast magnetosonic waves as advocated by Marsch and Tu? Is this description satisfactory? Or is it inaccurate or lacking in some way?
What form do pressure balanced structures take in the solar wind? What is the relative power and wavevector distribution of fast magnetosonic modes and of PBSs in the inertial range?
To what extent can linear Vlasov-Maxwell wave theory be used to explain the properties of the compressible fluctuations in the solar wind? Because the Vlasov-Maxwell theory indicates that the MHD slow mode is strongly damped, can the slow mode play any role at all in the solar wind? What roles do the entropy, mirror, and possibly other modes play, if any?
Does the existence of nonlinearity imply that linear wave theory is somehow invalid? To what extent are the properties of the linear eigenmodes preserved by the turbulence? Do nonlinear coherent structures exist in the solar wind? If so, then what form do they take and what is their relationship to linear waves?
What other theoretical framework(s) can be used to describe compressible inertial range fluctuations? What about nearly incompressible MHD or the so called “four field MHD?” Do these theories provide any compelling theoretical predictions that can be tested using observations and, if so, then what is the verdict?
|8. The need for high accuracy, high time resolution plasma and electromagnetic field measurements in the solar wind
A fundamental goal of solar wind research is to understand the kinetic processes which are responsible for solar wind heating and the regulation of particle distribution functions in the expanding solar wind. To accomplish this goal one must resolve lengthscales near the proton gyro-radius and the proton inertial length which requires simultaneous high time resolution measurements of both 3D particle distribution functions and 3-axis electric and magnetic fields with a sampling rate of 20 Hz or more. This can be accomplished in this decade using existing technologies. The discussion shall consider the following questions:
What are the technical capabilities of Solar Orbiter and NOAA’s next solar wind monitor ‘Discovr’? Will the data from these missions allow us to achieve the above stated goals?
Or, is a separate, dedicated solar wind science mission required to fulfill this need?
Low frequency electric field measurements (<20 Hz) are crucial for identifying waves at kinetic scales. Why are 3-axis electric field measurements so difficult and can we develop faster, better, and cheaper ways to do it?
Is a spinning spacecraft or a three-axis stabilized spacecraft the best choice for making the envisioned measurements?
Higher particle fluxes closer to the sun will make particle measurements easier to accomplish. What are the simplest spacecraft orbits that would enable a successful 2 year mission? Is a low cost earth-venus or earth-mercury orbit achieveable?
What are the desired or required technical specifications for particle distribution function and EM field measurements? How far from the spacecraft do we need to place the EM field instruments to obtain the required sensitivity/accuracy and is this achievable?
|9. Causes of the wide longitudinal signatures of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events.
Eric Christian, Georgia de Nolfo, Christina Cohen, Joe Giacalone, David Lario
New multipoint observations can help understand the acceleration and transport of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs), but they have also given us a new puzzle. Gradual SEPs are seen over a wider range than expected from the size of the corresponding CMEs, and impulsive SEP events can also have a very wide longitudinal span. Causes of this longitudinal spread might include a wider acceleration region possibly coupled to sympathetic activity seen across the Sun, fast longitudinal transport in the photosphere or low corona, field line wandering, or longitudinal transport in the heliosphere. Of particular interest is what compositional, temporal, or spectral information in current, or future, data can distinguish between these ideas. For example, is there a difference in the longitudinal extent of direct flare and shock-accelerated particles that can be determined from the composition? Is there a way to distinguish between cross-field diffusion and field line wandering, perhaps from the anisotropies of the ions and electrons? This discussion will continue the session from last year’s SHINE, and talk about new data and the possible causes of the wide events.
|10. Origin of CIR-associated suprathermal and energetic particles at 1 AU
Robert W. Ebert (SwRI), Lan Jian (GSFC and UMCP)
The origin of corotating interaction region (CIR)-associated energetic particles at 1 AU is still open to debate. The prevailing theory is that these particles are accelerated at shocks beyond Earth orbit and are transported back to 1 AU along the Parker spiral. This picture is somewhat at odds with current observations, especially at suprathermal energies (< ~1 MeV/nucleon) that show the energy spectra continue to extend as power-laws. There is mounting evidence that the suprathermal component is accelerated locally, especially in events with well-developed shocks and/or strong compression regions. These observations also suggest that the local plasma and field conditions play a role in the acceleration process. In this session, we will discuss the following:
- Where do the CIR-associated suprathermal and energetic particles seen at 1 AU originate? Are they accelerated locally?
- How are these particles accelerated? Does the acceleration require a shock?
- How do the plasma and field conditions at 1 AU influence particle acceleration? What are the properties of CIR-driven shocks at 1 AU?
- Does the current interpretation provide a consistent picture for the acceleration and transport of CIR-associated particles seen at 1 AU?
Glenn Mason, Joe Giacalone, Gang Li
Mihir Desai, David Lario, Kristin Simunac, Mark Popecki, Nathan Schwadron, Martin Lee, Christina Lee, Ian Richardson, Maher Dayeh
|11. Assessing the Contribution of Heliospheric Imaging, IPS and other remote sensing observations in Improving Space Weather Prediction
Simon Plunkett, Bernie Jackson, & Doug Biesecker
An array of imagers (SMEI, SECCHI) has been monitoring the inner heliosphere over the last 5 years. Many Earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) events have now been observed from a variety of viewpoints both along and away the Sun-Earth line. The heliospheric imagers in addition to other remote sensing techniques, such as Interplanetary Scintillation, allow us to directly trace the propagation of a given CME all the way from near the Sun to the Earth. The multi-viewpoint observations have led to the development and testing of various methods for deriving the propagation direction, speed, size and time of arrival of the CMEs at Earth. The results can be compared directly to in-situ detections to assess their validity.
In this session, we propose to discuss these results in order to assess the improvements in Space Weather forecasting brought about by heliospheric and multi-viewpoint imaging and identify the areas where open issues remain. We propose to format the session in discussion around the following questions:
- What is the shape of CME’s, does it change with height in the lower corona, and what is the optimum shape for input to operational models such as ENLIL? Cone, fluxrope model, something else?
- How important is the ambient environment for making predictions and are there conditions under which it can be ignored? How does the ambient environment affect the predictions (e.g., through drag, solar wind interactions, multiple interacting CMEs)?
For operational purposes, is imaging from a platform away from the Sun-Earth line (e.g., from L5) sufficient or do we still need imagers along the Sun-Earth line?
Additional questions to come from the IPS side of the house.
- Are there conditions existing models do not or cannot account for?
|12. Sympathetic and Homologous Eruptions in the Solar Corona
Giuliana de Toma, Olga Panasenco, and Tibor Torok
CMEs and flares often do not happen in isolation but are part of a series of multiple eruptions, which can be classified as either "homologous" or "sympathetic". Homologous eruptions are nearly identical events that occur in the same source region within hours or a few days of one another. Sympathetic eruptions, on the other hand, take place almost simultaneously in different, often quite distant, source regions. Although such multiple eruptions have been known for a relatively long time, it is yet not clear how the individual eruptions are connected in these events. The similarity between homologous events suggests that some process of repeated magnetic energy storage and release is at work in their source regions. The mechanisms that couple sympathetic eruptions appear to be of a magnetic nature as well, and may be related to reconnection occurring at topological divides of the large-scale coronal field.
SDO, during its two years of operation, has shown beautiful examples of both sympathetic and homologous eruptions, many of which have been observed simultaneously by STEREO. The combined, quasi full-Sun coverage provided by these spacecraft has suggested that multiple eruptions occur more frequently than previously thought. Furthermore, modelers have recently been able to address the possible physical mechanisms of multiple eruptions for the first time in 3D simulations. Therefore, it appears timely to establish a SHINE session that focuses on these interesting events.
We invite the community to join us in discussing ideas on the physics of multiple eruptions. We encourage all SHINE participants who have interesting observations or models related to such events to share them with the community during the discussions. Examples of questions we would like to address are:
- How often do homologous and sympathetic eruptions actually happen? Are they frequent or can we still assume that the large majority of flares and CMEs are isolated? If they are common, does this mean that we need to take the structure of the large-scale coronal field into account if we want to understand or predict the onset of eruptions?
- What are the physical mechanisms at work in multiple eruptions? Are they exclusively of a magnetic nature? Are there common observational features for homologous and sympathetic eruptions, indicating common physical mechanisms?
- How is free magnetic energy re-introduced in the source regions that produce homologous flares and CMEs after each eruption? What is the role of emerging/canceling magnetic flux? How similar are the on-disk signatures (such as dimmings, flare ribbons, and filament eruptions) in a sequence of homologous CMEs?
- What are the underlying magnetic configurations that can lead to sympathetic eruptions? Recent work indicates that pseudo-streamers may play an important role. Are there other magnetic topologies that favor these large-scale destabilizations of the solar corona? How do sympathetic eruptions organize in their sequence?
- What are the geomagnetic effects of these complex ejecta when they are Earth-directed?
|13. What do prominence and cavity activation tell us about the magnetic structure and triggering of the CME?
Sarah Gibson, Terry Kucera
It has long been known that prominences show heightened activity and even a slow rise prior to eruptions. Such "activation" of a prominence has implications for the magnetic restructuring that is likely to occur as part of the eruption (which may result in a CME or alternatively may "fail"). Recent observations have demonstrated that prominence cavities likewise show changes in morphology prior to eruption. Moreover, transient flows and sub-structures within cavities are often observed, and their structural and dynamic link to the prominence is an area of current research.
With an emphasis on activation prior to eruption (on multiple timescales: minutes, hours, even days prior), this session will focus on transient behavior observed in prominences and cavities. Moreover, we will consider how such observed behavior relates to models, in particular regarding the magnetic structure and triggers of coronal mass ejections.
|14. Data driven MHD modeling of CME events
Yuhong Fan (HAO/NCAR), George Fisher (SSL/Berkeley), Mark Linton (NRL)
MHD theory and numerical modeling based on idealized constructions ofcoronal magnetic field have led to significant advances in ourunderstanding of the basic underlying magnetic field structure of CME precursors and the mechanisms for their sudden eruption. The challenge now is to achieve data driven MHD simulations of realistic CME events that determine the actual magnetic field evolution and the resulting CME ejecta. The focus of this SHINE session will be to discuss how to advance such realistic data driven MHD simulations. During the two half-day sessions at SHINE, we will explore the following 4 major questions/topics:
(1) How photosphere vector magnetic field observations can be used to derive the driving conditions for coronal CME simulations?
(2) How MHD simulations of flux emergence enable better interpretation of photosphere observations and improve the lower boundary driving conditions for CME simulations?
(3) How analysis of the coronal magnetic field topology can be used to improve and interpret simulations of CME events?
(4) Incorporating realistic treatment of the thermodynamics to allow direct comparison with coronal observations of CMEs
|15. The Turbulent Solar Wind and Dissipation
Pin (Penny) Wu and Mike Shay
This session aims to improve the plasma physics knowledge, the modeling endeavors, and observational interpretations of the turbulent solar wind energy cascade, energy dissipation, and related plasma heating. The session will cover the proposed topic in relation to coherent structures in the solar wind such as reconnection, current sheets, shocks, discontinuities, and co-rotation interaction regions (CIRs), as well as to MHD and kinetic waves and instabilities. The session will attract physicists studying the solar wind from various perspectives and applying various tools; and will address critical issues such as whether the identification of characteristics of "wave modes" (whistler, kinetic Alfven wave, and etc.) is sufficient to describe the physics. The aim is to bring together senior researchers for converging toward an integrated understanding of the turbulent solar wind, and to provide a "big picture" for young researchers such as graduate students and postdocs. The aim matches SHINE's spirit of a research discussion orientated workshop that focuses on unsettled, provocative, and controversial issues. The aim also assists SHINE's educational goal for young researchers.
Marco Velli (JPL) : Review of current sheets in the solar wind
Stuart Bale (University of California, Berkeley), Observational interpretation of the solar wind turbulence
Sergio Servidio (University of Calabria), Reconnection in a turbulent environment
Homa Karimabadi (University of California, San Diego): Sheer driven reconnection and turbulence
|16. Community wide validation study of models of the corona and inner heliosphere
At SHINE 2011 we began the definition of a Community wide validation study of models of the corona and inner heliosphere. The session was heavily oversubscribed with more than 20 presenters representing 10 different models and the data analysis community.
At SHINE 2012 we will continue this effort. Model developers will present their initial results for the test cases chosen as a result of our discussion in 2011. The goal of this years session is to refine the test case definitions, determine the optimal post-processing to expose most clearly the strengths and weaknesses of the different models, and thereby prime the model developers for their definitive submission of model results in the second year. The first test cases focussed on modeling solar minimum conditions. At this years meeting we will add an additional set of test cases representative of solar maximum, and with the benefit of comparison with recent SDO data.